The dominant language of the Province, Pashto, belongs to the Irani branch of the Aryan family of languages. It has two main dialects: Pakhto and Pashto. Pakhto is the hard or north-eastern version spoken in Bajaur, Swat and Buner, by the Yusufzai, Bangash, Orakzai, Afridi and Momand tribes. Pashto is the soft or south-western version spoken by the Khattaks, Wazirs, Marwats and other tribes in the south. The earliest Pashto works were composed in the Yusufzai dialect which is considered classical. It is the purest and the clearest form of the language.
- Pakhto/Pashto is the major language, spoken and understood mainly in the central districts.
- Hindko, (a Punjabi dialect) is in Majority in Hazara Division and also in the central old city areas of Nowshera, Kohat and Peshawar cities.
- Saraiki(a Punjabi dialect) is in majority in the southern Districts of DI Khan and Tank
- Khowar, by people in the north specially in majority in district Chitral
- Standard Punjabi, minority living in the major cities and all cantonment areas.
- Kohistani, majority in Kohistan district and north half of Swat district.
- Gojr iminority throughout northern half of the province.
- Dari/Hazaragi/Farsi/Tajik, varieties of Persian by Afghan refugees
Other languages Include, Kashmiri, Shina, Romani, Burushaski, Wakhi, Balti, Balochi, Brahui, Sindhi and English (official and used in tourism) Only Urdu and English are found as written languages in the city. English, the official language of Pakistan, is mainly used for official and literary purposes.