Khyber Pakhtunkhwa consists of mountain ranges, undulating submontane areas, and plains surrounded by hills. The mountain ranges generally run in the north-south which is the south of the River Kabul. It divides the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from east to west. The Hindu Kush region in the North is known for its exotic beauty. The highest peak of the northern Hindu Kush is the Tirich Mir. The rugged basins of the Panjkora, Swat, and Kandia rivers lie in the south of the Hindu raj. The region is tremorous with mild to moderate tremors frequently.
Geographically, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is divided into two zones, the northern zone, and the southern zone. The northern zone scopes from the Hindu Kush to the borders of the Peshawar basin. The climate of the northern zone is snowy and cold with heavy rainfall in winters. It has pleasant summers with moderate rainfall excluding the Capital Peshawar which is hot in summer. The southern zone ranges from Peshawar to the Derajat basin. It has hot summers with relatively cold winters with minimal rainfall.
The capital of the province Peshawar extends northward along the Kabul River. It contains about half of the province’s total population despite the fact that it covers one-tenth of the total covered area by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In the west of Peshawar, the Iconic Khyber Pass is an easy route between Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent. Peshawar's climate is warm and temperate. The rainfall in Peshawar is exceptional, even the driest month of the year has some level of precipitation. The temperature averages 22.3 °C or 72.1 °F. Precipitation ranges from 817 mm to 32.2 inches per year.
The climate of the province varies with elevation. The mountain ranges encounter cold winters and cool summers, whereas the temperature rises towards the south. Precipitation of the province is fluctuating; roughly it averages about 16 inches annually. The most active duration for the precipitation occurs from January to April. The mountain slope in the north is known for oak and pine. The area is also filled with immense grasslands.